Diversity Management Digest: Factoids; Research; Diversity Training
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Diversity Management: A Value-Added Inclusion Course, Leading to Diploma - Postgraduate in Diversity Management, 30 Credit-Hours, accumulating to a Postgraduate Certificate, with 150 additional Credit-Hours, and a Postgraduate Diploma, with 330 additional Credit-Hours.

Diversity Management Digest: Diversity Factoids; Diversity Research; Diversity, Multicultural, Equality Training

This page is designed to provide information relevant to diversity management, that will be of help to managers - in their drive to promote diversity in their organisations. It attempts to provide hints on diversity policy formulation; diversity policy implementation; diversity monitoring. It also provides diversity factoids, that are relevant to diversity management - dispelling some of the myths that are associated with stereotyping particular groups of people. Diversity factoids also provide vital diversity management information that might be exploited as marketing intelligence. This information is based on empirical research findings and established practice.


Please Click the Links below, or scroll down, to view your selected diversity factoid or diversity policy guide

Diversity Factoid 1: Fact about Women Managers


Diversity Policy Guide 1: Gender-Friendly Organisations

 Free Diversity Research Papers

Diversity Factoid 2:Women and  Humour

 Diversity Training

:Diversity Factoid 3: Profiling The Harasser


Diversity Factoid 4: Resonation Ruins Morale


Diversity Policy Guide 3: Making Diversity Policy Work


Diversity Policy Guide 4: Creating Diverse and Effective Teams


Diversity Policy Guide 5: Protecting Minority Ethnic Workers


Diversity Factoid 5: Complaints Against Minority Ethnic Workers



Diversity Factoid 1: Women Managers and Management Styles

Empirical Meta Analysis indicates that, contrary to stereotypical beliefs, women enact their leadership roles comparable to, or more effectively than, their male counterparts. The leadership styles of women are on a similar range to those of their male counterparts.





Diversity Policy Guide 1: Making Organisations More Gender-friendly

One of the issues with which many researchers attempt to explain is that women managers, as a survival impeditive, behave in ways that they ensure that they meet the expectations of their male counterparts. This prevents them from being themselves,  suffocating some of their most valued attributes, such as their empathic and caring drives. They hide their emotions, in ways that they themselves find difficult to comprehend.

British legislation protects workers from being stripped from their gender and ethnicity (See Crawford, 2003). This means that the situations where women are forced to behave unnaturally, those who force this situation on them is breaking the law. Since Modern Diversity Management goes beyond legislation and focuses on organisational effectiveness (Crawford, 2003), organisations need to create an environment where freedom of 'behavioural expression' prevails.

Policy should ensure that women are not victimised, through the denial of promotion and reduced involvement in corporate affairs, where they prove to be different from their male counterparts. It is this variety that enriches organisational relationships, lending to organisational development and advancement.


Diversity Factoid 2: Women's Use of Humour

Humour has recently become an important feature of management. Managers who use humour effectively, achieve better results than those who do not. It is generally suggested that women are not as effective at humour as their male counterparts. It is claimed that women use of humour in management more sparingly on male than they do on their female 'colleagues'. However, recent research indicates that, when given the chance to do so, women, in management,  use humour equally effectively on both gender.

Diversity Factoid 3: Profiling The Harasser!

When individual workers are accused of racial harassment or sexual harassment, you will probably say:

  • "I have known him/her for years and he would never do a thing like that"

  • "He/she is an excellent worker, who is extremely professional"

  • "He/she has always behaved in a dignified manner, and his/her relationship with his/her colleagues has been excellent"

  • "I cannot perceive that he/she would do anything like that"

However, you would be very surprised that these are the very people, whom you have describe, who are most likely to racially and sexually harass others. They are the people who are highly respected by their colleagues and who are least likely to be out of favour with them. They are aware of the implicit support that they receive from their colleagues, but will be vicious to their victims.



Diversity Factoid 4: Resonation Ruins Morale

Resonation (Crawford, 2001-2003) is the situation whereby one member’s view is given little or no attention or completely dismissed, but is overwhelmingly received when another member represents it. In most cases, no credit is given to the originator of the idea. You might find this occurring frequently in meetings, and might be a factor of gender, age, disability, ethnicity etc.

Resonation can be very devastating to victims. They are usually disillusioned, setting the trigger for lowering morale, affecting the productivity of the team. The team suffers from the absence of the vital contribution that these victims withhold. The convenor is best placed to ensure that resonation does not occur and that gatekeeping is effective. Gatekeeping should ensure that all contributions are acknowledged and evaluated. These should be no occasion, when these are rebounded, to receive a rousing ovation. When resonation occurs, it means that the convenor and the resonator have conspired to steal the victim's ideas.

Diversity Policy Guide 4: Creating Diverse and Effective Teams


Not only is the constitution of committees, task forces and focus groups an integral aspect of effective diversity management but so also is the value that is placed on the views of the different diversity elements that are represented. It is, therefore, important that gate keeping (Moorhead and Griffin, 2001; Stoner, Freeman and Gilbert, 1995) – the monitoring of views and encouragement of participation - is  recognised as a crucial activity in the success of any discourse. This facility encourages the volunteering and evaluation of ideas, enriching the pool of available information. Gate keeping will also ensure that ‘resonation’ is promptly discouraged, averting the likelihood of ‘withdrawal’ of potentially effective contributors.


Evidence from the empirical study of Hemphill and Haines (cited in Phomphakdy and Kleiner, 1999, pp. 44-45), on diversity training, with 500 senior executives, directors, managers and 100 internal and external consultants and trainers, is the prescription that organisations should institute a:

·         Zero tolerance policy for discrimination practices

·         Baseline workplace behaviour standards expected of all employees

·         Supportive workplace relationship skills programme.


Any strategy for managing diversity should consider employees as heterogeneous, rather than the traditional methods based around homogeneity. A diversity policy and procedure statements “will not prevent discrimination and harassment from occurring but will state the employer’s stance on such issues that hopefully will encourage employees to conduct themselves accordingly” (Egge, 1999, p.25). The resultant increased morale and motivation from an effective diversity management policy will boost retention rates – a contribution to direct and indirect costs, enhancing organisational effectiveness.


Organisations should adopt a two-stage approach to diversity management, the first of which is consciousness or awareness raising, in an effort to generate a better understanding, by attempting to change individuals’ attitudes and values – without expecting any lasting change.  The second stage should assume that meaningful change occurs through challenging organisational or institutional policies – advocating “the implementation of more appropriate recruitment and selection training and development, promotion rewards and performance management systems, which reinforce desired behaviours”. This stage requires that diversity is an inherent aspect of policy and strategy. It requires monitoring and control systems that surpass the idea of equal opportunities. Workers should be given clear directives to avert any claim of ignorance, necessitating the accurate and timely dissemination of information crucial to the continuance and enhancement of the process. Organisational design and redesign effort will take account of the ‘structure-culture symbiosis’ and its effect on race and gender issues. As is the practice in Levi Strauss (Egge, 1999), internalisation of diversity issues must be a prerequisite for any reward – incremental or large-scale. People should not be allowed to remain in, or appointed to, positions crucial to effective diversity management, where they are a snob to the process.



Diversity Factoid 5: Complaints Against Minority Ethnic Workers

  • Statistically, it is several times more likely for managers to receive complaints against minority ethnic workers than their white counterparts.

  • Some complaints against minority ethnic workers emerge because their work is superior to their white counterparts and to other members of the same or different minority ethnic group.

  • Complaints are seldom received against a mediocre and submissive member of a minority ethnic group.

  • Members of minority ethnic groups, who are jealous of another member’s work, sometimes engineer complaints against that member, often soliciting the support of their white counterparts.

  • Members of different minority ethnic groups often rival each other and complaints emerging from opposing groups might be a manifestation of this rivalry.



Diversity Policy Guide 5: Protecting Minority Ethnic Workers

  • While all complaints against a worker should be taken seriously, policy and procedure should be in place to ensure that victimisation does not occur.

  • Workers, clients or customers making complaints against a worker should produce evidence that support the complaint before any attempt is made to ‘indict’ the defendant.

  • Procedure should be in place for mutual resolution of any conflict that exists between workers, and which involves minor misdemeanour, before any formal complaints are made.

  • In the event of minor misdemeanour, where formal complaints are made before any attempt at mutual resolution then the complaint should be disregarded and the complainant advised to attempt mutual resolution.



Diversity Factoid 6: Black Voice - Confused

  • Blacks are genetically, and hence physiologically different from their white counterparts. This means that they are behaviourally different from whites.

  • They find it difficult to meet the behavioural expectations of colleagues and managers. There is no wonder that some of them claim to be confused, constantly facing a dilemma.

  • They are accused of being un-co-operative    when they fail to present their views. Whenever they fail to react to intimidation and bullying from their white counterparts, they are accused of being unassertive.

  • It is often claimed that this unassertiveness is the main reason that they are the victim of bullying and harassment.

  • However, whenever they speak out and try to be assertive, they are  accused of being aggressive.

  • This claimed aggression becomes grounds for complaints and disciplinary action against them.


Diversity Policy Guide 6: Securing Diverse Views - Valuing marketing Intelligence

  • If management is to keep within the Race Relations Act, then it cannot support the attempts of others to strip Blacks of their identity, parts of which are their voice,  mood, emotion and mannerism.

  • They are  affected by particular stimuli in ways that are different from those of their White counterparts. They may be impelled to speak at different 'juncture' from their White colleagues. Blacks might not speak because of the fear of 'resonation' (Crawford, 2003).

  • Like other minority groups, Blacks possess valuable marketing intelligence that will, if tapped, be of exceptional value to the organisation.

  • Managers need to establish policy that will protect Blacks from discrimination, yet open the channel for them to be free to express their views, without the fear of being accused of being aggressive. They often need to be encouraged to speak. This might be achieved by effective gatekeeping at meetings.

  • There is a need to establish and monitor policy that will eliminate the vicious circle that   blacks face, where they face bullying and intimidation on a face-to-face level and conspiracy for the formulation of complaints against them when they fail to speak at times deemed by their White counterparts to be appropriate or to speak at other times that they presume to be inappropriate.

  • Because Blacks are likely to be provoked to respond in ways that their White colleagues deem to be aggressive, senior managers might be forced to institute a policy whereby there is either detailed minute-taking by an independent and unbiased party or the videoing of meetings in which Blacks are involved.


Prof. Dr. R. B. Crawford is the Director of HRODC Postgraduate Training Institute, A Postgraduate-Only Institution. He has the following Qualifications and Affiliations:

Doctor of Philosophy {(PhD) {University College London (UCL) - University of London)};

MEd Management (University of Bath);

Postgraduate (Advanced) Diploma Science Teacher Ed. (University of Bristol);

Postgraduate Certificate in Information Systems (University of West London, formerly Thames Valley University);

Diploma in Doctoral Research Supervision, (University of Wolverhampton);

Teaching Certificate;

Fellow of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Human Resources Specialist, of the Institute of Management Specialists;

Member of the Asian Academy of Management (MAAM);

Member of the International Society of Gesture Studies (MISGS);

Member of the Standing Council for Organisational Symbolism (MSCOS);

Member of ResearchGate;

Executive Member of Academy of Management (AOM). There, his contribution incorporates the judging of competitions, review of journal articles, and guiding the development of conference papers. He also contributes to the Disciplines of:

Human Resources;

Organization and Management Theory;

Organization Development and Change;

Research Methods;

Conflict Management;

Organizational Behavior;

Management Consulting;

Gender & Diversity in Organizations; and

Critical Management Studies.

Professor Dr. Crawford has been an Academic in the following UK Universities:

University of London (Royal Holloway), as Research Tutor;

University of Greenwich (Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

University of Wolverhampton, (Wolverhampton Business School), as Senior Lecturer (Associate Professor), in Organisational Behaviour and Human Resource Management;

London Southbank University (Business School), as Lecturer and Unit Leader.

His responsibilities in these roles included:

Doctoral Research Supervisor;

Admissions Tutor;

Postgraduate and Undergraduate Dissertation Supervisor;

Programme Leader;

Personal Tutor.